• Genetics and Heredity

    Chromosomes-genetic material in the cell that contain traits and characteristics

    Traits-characteristics of an organism

    Gametes (Sex cells)-egg and sperm (½ the number of chromosomes)

    Genes-traits and characteristics of an organism

    Sexual Reproduction-2 parents, the combining of 2 gametes, an egg and sperm

    Clone-the exact genetic replica of an organism

    Punnett Square-used to predict heredity

    Genotype-the genetic makeup of an organism

    Phenotype-the physical makeup of an organism, what you see

    Heredity-the traits that you get from a parent or grandparent

    Genetics-the study of heredity

    Allele-part of a chromosome that represents a trait

    DNA-the blueprints of your body

    Hybrid-heterozygous traits, different genes representing a trait

    Mendel-father of genetics, crossed  types of pea plants and studied the offspring

    Dominant trait-a trait that shows over a recessive trait, represented by uppercase letter

    Recessive trait-can be masked by a dominant trait, represented by a lowercase letter

    Meiosis-cell division to make gamites ½ the chromosomes in each mitosis twice

    Mitosis-cell division

    Pedigree-a chart that shows heredity

    Force and Motion

    Motion-when an object moves from one point to another according to a reference point

    Speed-the rate of movement of an object

    Velocity- the rate of movement in a certain direction of an object

    Newton-how force is measured

    Acceleration-when a moving object changes speed or direction

    Friction-a force that opposes motion

    Force-a push or pull

    Inertia-related to mass of an object resisting motion or stopping from motion

    Momentum-the transfer of energy from one object to another relating to mass and speed.

    Balanced force-no motion or opposing forces on an object are equal

    Unbalanced force-motion when opposing forces on an object are not equal

    Gravity-relating to mass, the force that pulls objects toward the earth

    Magnetism-force that attracts certain metals

    Potential Energy-stored energy

    Kinetic Energy-energy of motion

    Reference point-place or thing that is not in motion related to an object in motion


    Work-movement of an object in the direction of the force

    Thermal Energy-heat

    Compound Machines-2 or more simple machines working together to make work easier

    Mechanical Energy- energy transfer from potential to kinetic to move an object.

    Electromagnetic E-light, UV, micro and gamma rays.

    Energy Resources-fossil fuels, solar, wind, water

    Chemical Energy-digested food and batteries

    Sound Energy- energy that is transferred into noise

    Power- the rate at which work is done

    Electrical Energy-energy from the socket 

    Simple Machine-6 machines that make work easier, lever, screw,wedge,w.&A,pulley I.P.

    Atmosphere and Weather

    Atmosphere-All the gasses around the earth


    Thermosphere- upper layer where northern lights occur, hottest layer

    Mesosphere-middle layer where meteors burn up

    Stratosphere-2nd layer from the earth, contains the ozone layer

    Troposphere-closest to the earth all weather and living things are found here

    Ozone Layer-absorbs UV rays from sun that can cause skin damage

    Air pressure-the amount of gasses in an area

    Temperature-the movement of molecules, fast-hot, slow-cold

    Mass-the amount of matter in an object.

    Volume-how much space and object takes up

    Density-mass over volume, how much space a certain amount of matter takes up

    Water Cycle-evaporation, condensation,precipitation,runoff

    Precipitation-rain, sleet hail or snow

    Evaporation-water molecules speed up and go from a liquid to a gas (water vapor)

    Condensation-water molecules slow down and go from a gas to a liquid

    Humidity-amount of water vapor in the air

    Water vapor-water in gas form

    Wind-the moving of air molecules

    Clouds -condensed water in the air

    Weather- atmospheric changes

    Fronts- the movement of air masses causing storms or calm weather

    Barometer-measures air pressure

    Runoff-surface water from rain that runs into streams, lakes and oceans

    Body Systems

    Homeostasis -body’s ability to keep internal parts the same as outside temps change

    Integumentary System-skin, nails and hair

    Urinary System-gets rid of unwanted liquid waste

    Tissue -a group of similar cells

    Muscular System-works with skeletal system in movement

    Nervous System-brain, senses

    Organ-a group of similar tissues working together

    Skeletal System-support, structure, protection and the making of red blood cells

    Digestive System-extracts nutrients from the food we eat for energy

    Cardiovascular system-includes heart, veins, arteries and capilaries and transports needed nutrients and oxygen to the cells of the body

     Lymphatic System-controls diseases and regulates fluids in the body

    Respiratory System-includes lungs and transfers brings oxygen in and gets rid of C02.

    Endocrine System-regulates body functions with hormones and chemicals

    Cells and Protists

    Cell-basic unit of life

    Single Cellular-organism that consists of only one cell

    Multicellular-organism that consists of many cells

    Organelles-like organs in a body they help cells funtion

    Cell Membrane-semipermeable barrier that holds in organelles separate from the environment

    Cell Wall-structure only in plants that is for support

    Nucleus-brain of the cell, controls the functions in the cell

    1. Membrane-structure that separates the DNA from the rest of the cell

    Chloroplasts-organelle in plant cells that uses photosynthesis to make food

    Mitochondria-powerhouse of the cell that makes ATP/energy

    Vacuoles-organelles that hold food and wastes

    Lysosomes-gets rid of wastes in the cell

    Cytoplasm-jelly like substance that holds all the organelles

    Ribosomes-organelle that makes proteins

    ER-organelle that transports things in the cell

    Eukaryotic-plant and animal cells

    Protist-organisms that are not plants or animals

    Euglena-protist with eyespot and flagella can ingest food or make its own

    Ameba-protist with not definite shape, eats and moves with pseudopod

    Paramecium- protist that moves with its cilia and has an oral groove

    Volvox-protist that lives in colonies, has chloroplasts to make its own food

    Flagellum-tail like structure that helps euglena and volvox move

    Cilia-hair like structures that help paramecium move and eat

    Pseudopods-extension of amebas cytoplasm used to move and eat

    Prokaryote-bacteria only with no nuclear membrane

    Bacteria-in separate kingdom,procaryote, not nuclear membrane